Practicing ILS approaches

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frumpy
Posts: 120
Joined: Sat Jan 30, 2016 12:01 pm

Practicing ILS approaches

#1 Post by frumpy » Thu Jul 28, 2016 1:12 pm

Hi guys, first post in the "Simutainment" section ;)

Here is a quick video I made. I have to find a better setup for X-Plane though,
I just need fog and maximum fps. Sometimes X-Plane lets me see through
the fog, I don't know why...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gR3iXHJ_3g

JackZ
Posts: 615
Joined: Mon Feb 22, 2016 1:02 pm

Re: Practicing ILS approaches

#2 Post by JackZ » Thu Jul 28, 2016 4:39 pm

Pretty neat setup and approach! Pleased to see my HSI at work 8-)
Are you using a second computer for the radios?

As for the approach, here's a hint when intercepting the localizer, at least with GA airplane : try to keep the extremity of the luber line(the white line on the HSI) "joined" to the extremity of the CDI needle (the moving yellow segment of the HSI course).
The length of the lumber line has been designed for this purpose.
When the CDI needle starts to move towards the center, start your turn such as you constantly keep both lines "connected" by their extremities.
This will ensure a constant rate of intercept: If the CDI needle goes faster to the center position, you will be forced to increase slightly your rate of turn ( never exceed more than 1.5 standard rate of turn), and the contrary is true of course!

And last but not the least, you are normally supposed to be established straight on on the LOC beam BEFORE starting to intercept the glide path. That means that flaps are already set to approach since the beginning of the procedure, and the gear will be down (usually) when the GSI Needle is at or one dot above the center.
You were probably very close of the initial approach fix (IAF) when trying to intercept, that is why you were established on the glide before being aligned with the Loc.

This being said under the control of more experienced pilots IRL such as Russ of course!
Thanks for this video!

Jacques

frumpy
Posts: 120
Joined: Sat Jan 30, 2016 12:01 pm

Re: Practicing ILS approaches

#3 Post by frumpy » Fri Jul 29, 2016 12:10 pm

Hi Jaques,

yes, the HSI is pretty! I tried to redo it myself, but you were quicker ;)

My setup is a rig with two monitors and AM running the radios locally, plus a laptop with AM running networked.

As for finetuning the approach, I never had instrument training, so thanks for
the hints! But I heard about "loc before gs" before :oops:

Still, I don't get what lines you mean, which lines?
Image

JackZ
Posts: 615
Joined: Mon Feb 22, 2016 1:02 pm

Re: Practicing ILS approaches

#4 Post by JackZ » Fri Jul 29, 2016 2:22 pm

A picture is worth a thousand words!
1: luber line
3: CDI(course deviation indicator) needle

If you have an approach plate, you will notice that the standard ILS intercept procedure is often flown that way:
1-First head straight to the the IAF (initial approach fix) in order to overfly it at a high altitude, then turn to a a heading roughly outbound of the runway (i.e. Runway heading+ 180).
The CDI needle (4) is already set to the ILS runway heading and of course all the Nav setup is already done (say a secondary VOR/ILS as a backup, an RMI, DME etc...)

2-Fly on this heading for two minutes, so you make sure that you are going "under" the glide slope. During this phase, you will configure your plane for the approach, and slow down the plane to reach the approach speed you will maintain all the time (speed and flaps). If needed, you'll also start your descent to a safe intercept altitude, such as when at the end of your procedure turn (ie flying inbound towards the runway) you will be well below the glide slope. It is best to reach the correct altitude BEFORE starting the turn, as it is very difficult to turn and descend at the same time.

3- After that you will begin the procedure turn itself, that allows you to intercept the loc first, then the glide slope, with an angle of 45°.
Let's say you turn LEFT 45°, so you will substract 45° to your current heading, turn towards this new heading, then start the timer when you plane is level.
After 1 minute, turn RIGHT to the actual heading + 180 at a standard rate turn (so you will make the 180 turn in 1 minute) and you will hopefully end up in a intercept heading of the runway heading+45°.

4- Use the "intercept trick" i gave you (as soon as the CDI needle(3) reaches the luber line(1), start a smooth turn to intercept). As said before, if the CDI needle moves fast to the center, increase the rate of turn. However, if your timing is right in your procedure turn, you are far enough to intercept smoothly the loc, and be aligned before intercepting the glide slope.

5- Stay at your current altitude until the glide indicator needle is above the center dot. When the needle is 1 dot away from the center, set the gear down and adjust the power so you keep the same approach speed while starting your descent. Depending on your approach speed, a vertical speed of 300 to 500 ft/min should be fine. You are already aligned with the localizer, in the approach configuration, the rest is up to you.

6- Sooner you will overfly again the IAF, where usually you start again a timer, such as when you reach the minimums and the time you are supposed to have visual contact and land, you can take the decision to go around. if the runway or t least some lights are not in sight

The IAF is either an beacon such as a VOR, rarely a marker (generally the middle marker), a fix or a GPS waypoint. The IAF is usually aligned with and located at a given distance of the runway.

Of course the whole process is very theorical, and so I added a drawing so you can try to visualize the whole procedure.
Let me know if this help, and publish a video! :D

Jacques
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Standard-procedure-turn.jpg
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